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POSTPONED / Biomechanics of axial morphogenesis in chicken embryos
Par Karine Guevorkian (Institut Curie)
Le 18 Mars 2020 à 11h00 - Salle de séminaires 5ème étage, Tour 32-33

Résumé

In a simple view, an embryo comes to be when over time, a ball of undifferentiated cells transforms into specific organs. This process is controlled by biochemical signals, in concert with mechanical cues. Understanding and quantifying the role of mechanics in shaping a tissue is one of the challenges in modern developmental biology. We are interested in a process specific to vertebrate embryos called somitogenesis, which leads to the formation of our musco-skeletal structure. After the formation of the antero-posterior axis of the embryo, the mesodermal tissue situated at the two sides of the central axe grows while progenitor cells are added at the tail region. Concomitantly, the mesodermal cells undergo mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) as they reach the anterior end, and generate the somites. These epithelial multicellular structures, eventually detach from the rest of the mesoderm though mechanisms that are not yet well understood. We aim to understand the role of parameters such as cytoskeletal forces and cell-cell adhesions that induce the mechanical instability leading to somite formation. In this talk, we will present our findings on the cellular mechanisms implied in mesodermal expansion, and describe the experimental approaches inspired by soft matter physics to study the effect of the MET on the mechanical responses of the mesoderm.